The Age of Philip II and the Supremacy of the Spanish Empire Illustrated

Philip, both from his personal character, and from his position as sovereign of the most potent monarchy in Europe, was placed at the head of the party which strove to uphold the fortunes of the ancient Church; and thus his policy led him perpetually to interfere in the internal affairs of the other European states… .

It covers the period when the doctrines of the Reformation were agitating the minds of men in so fearful a manner as to shake the very foundations of the Romish hierarchy in the fierce contest which divided Christendom. The history of philip the Second is the history of Europe during the latter half of the sixteenth century.


A Short History of Austria from 1232 to 1792 Quintessential Classics Illustrated - The House of Habsburg

At the sound of the bugle the portcullis was raised, and banners unfurled, emerged from the castle, with nodding plumes, the drawbridge spanned the moat, at the head of thirty steel-clad warriors, and Albert, and proceeded to the neighboring convent of Mari. The knights mounted their horses; the clatter of hoofs was heard, and the glittering cavalcade soon disappeared in the forest.

Albert felt the solemnity of the hour, and in solemn tones gave his farewell address to his children. My sons, never engage in unnecessary war, "cultivate truth and piety; give no ear to evil counselors, " said the steel-clad warrior, but when you are involved in war be strong and brave. Love peace even better than your own personal interests.

A multitude of vassals crowded around to witness the imposing ceremonies of the church, as the banners were blessed, and the knights, after having received the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, were commended to the protection of God. Albert had left his ancestral castle, never to return. In the year 1232 this castle was occupied by Albert, fourth Count of Habsburg.

. Remember that the counts of habsburg did not attain their heights of reputation and glory by fraud, insolence or selfishness, but by courage and devotion to the public weal. As long as you follow their footsteps, but augment, you will not only retain, the possessions and dignities of your illustrious ancestors.

The tears and sobs of his wife and family interrupted him while he uttered these parting words.

The Age of Charles V and the Supremacy of the House of Habsburg Illustrated

His rule covered extensive territory in Europe and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. His rule as emperor was one of the seminal reigns of war-torn Europe, and critical for a complete understanding of the leaders who shaped the modern world. The age of charles v and the supremacy of the House of Habsburg covers the period and reign of one of the most powerful monarchs in the history of the world, Charles V.

Much of his reign was concerned with the Italian Wars against France and to defeating the alliance of the French and the Ottoman Empire. He was vigorously opposed to the Protestant Reformation and was instrumental in the terror of the Counter-Reformation. He was the heir of three of europe’s leading houses, the House of Habsburg, the House of Valois-Burgundy, and the House of Trastamara.

Charles also oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

The House of Bourbon - France under Louis XIV and the Regency Illustrated

Her european position was far more commanding at the close of the seventeenth century than at its beginning. Thus france has been built up. Bourgeoisie united with nobility in a common glee; the fisherwomen of the market were as exuberant in their joy as the courtiers of the Louvre. Thus italy has been consolidated in our own days.

Alike in political power, in the attention attracted by her literature, in the influence exercised by her society, France was confessedly the leading state of Europe. The unification of great nations, in the past as in the present, has attended the development of civilization. The greatest subdivision of Europe coincided with the worst condition of the poor, and the lowest phases of general intelligence.

When he was dangerously ill, every one was in consternation; his recovery was greeted by demonstrations of delight which were universal and unfeigned. The growth of nations by the absorption of smaller communities, adapted by situation and by race to assimilate with the larger body, has been the law of European progress.

It was shown that the omnipotence of the master was not accompanied by omniscience; a severe rule became irksome when its results were defeat abroad and distress at home. The aggrandizement of france during the seventeenth century is not to be condemned as the result of a series of piratical excursions.

Additions of new territory had increased her strength and her prestige; they had gratified the pride of a people which has always been eager to extend the boundaries and the influence of the fatherland.

Book I of II Illustrated - Europe During the Thirty Years War

1620-3. Richelieu. The vasa in sweden and poland. The massive history of europe During the Thirty Years War, one of the most significant periods of European and world history. 1640-2. The first civil war, 1642-7. Presbyterians and independents. 1630-2. Wallenstein and bernard of weimar. 1603-39. The protestant collapse. 1645-9.

The westminster assembly. 1632-4. The constitutional struggle in england. 1620-30 I. Wallenstein's end. Catholics for control of Europe. 1625-40 The first two years of the long parliament. Contents include:the outbreak of the thiRTY YEARS' WAR. The valtelline. This vast comprehensive history is perfect as both an introduction and a full-blown exegesis of the long-waged war, the brutal conflict that pitted Protestants vs.

1560-1630 Gustavus adolphus.

The Wars of the Papal States 1492-1517 - Italian Princes, Warrior Popes, and Holy Roman Emperors Illustrated

As a spaniard he would hold a neutral position towards political parties in Italy, and the recent successes of the Spanish monarchs had turned men's eyes to Spain as a power which was rising to importance in the affairs of Christendom. Sforza did not judge it wise to put himself forward as a candidate; he rather wished to have a Pope who would owe everything to him, and he joined with Raffaelle Riario in pressing the election of Cardinal Borgia.

His candidate was the genoese cardinal pallavicini; but Cardinal Cibo shared the incompetence of his family, and when he saw that his first proposal was unacceptable he had no one else to propose. Ascanio sforza, seconded by orsini, was working hard to secure the election of Borgia, who debased himself to make the most humble entreaties.

So matters proceeded smoothly in the Conclave, and late in the evening of August 10 the election of Rodrigo Borgia was unanimously accomplished. Charles viii of france was anxious to secure the election of Cardinal Rovere, and sent 200, 000 ducats to a Roman bank as a means of furthering his desire. On august 6, 1492, the twenty-three Cardinals in Rome entered the Conclave.

The death of innocent viiI had been long foreseen, and the probabilities of the future election had been discussed. A pope in the french interest was dreaded by Milan; and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza was resolutely opposed to Rovere.

The Wars of Religion - The struggle for power in 16th century Europe - Book II of III Illustrated

The continuation of the epic history of Europe in the 16th century, the Wars of Religion Book II of III. Illustrated throughout to enhance the reading experience. Contents of book ii include:mary stuartthe elizabethan naval war with spainthe last years of elizabeththe elizabethan age of english literaturetuscanysavoyrome under sixtus vthe end of the ITALIAN RENAISSANCE.


Europe During the Thirty Years War - Book II of II Illustrated

1649-59. The navy of the commonwealth and the first dutch war. Scotland from the accession of charles i to the restoration. Ireland. Book ii of ii contents include:the later years of tHE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. From the plantation of ulster to the cromwellian settlement. An excellent, massive history of Europe during the fateful time of the Thirty Years' War and the resultant peace.

1611-59. Anarchy and the restoration. 1659-60 The scandinavian north. 1635-48. The peace of westphalia. The commonwealth and the protectorate. 1559-1660 Mazarin. Spain and spanish italy under philip iii and iv. Papal policy, 1590-1648. Frederick henry, prince of orange. The fantastic school of english poetry. Descartes and cartesianism.


A History of the Early Middle Ages Illustrated - Germany and the Western Empire

Breaches of continuity are rare, and the other, the establishment of the moors in Spain, the inroads of the Northmen ending in the establishment of the Normans, whose conquest of England, as the beginning of a new era, more widely diffused and less restricted locally, although in this period we have two of them: one, is kept for a later volume.

. In many other periods some histories of states or institutions cease to be significant or else come to an end. The true significance, therefore, of the age can only be seen when we look ahead, and bear in mind the outlines of what in coming volumes must be traced in detail. History is always changing and transitional, but keeps its own continuity even when we find it hard to discern.

The period with which we have to deal is more than most periods what is sometimes called transitional; but this only means that it is more difficult than other periods to treat by itself. The oath is in itself a monument of the division between Romance and Teutonic languages, a linguistic difference which soon joined itself to other differences of race and circumstance.

This difference was to grow, and the rivalry was to make the old austrasia into a debatable land; so that, to become more acute and to pass into rivalry as years went by, for the later France and Germany, the year 843 may be taken as a convenient beginning in historic record of their separate national lives.

Of this particular age we can say that it is specially and peculiarly one of beginnings, one in which older institutions and older forms of thought are gradually passing into later stages, which sometimes seem to be altogether new. Henceforth we have to follow separate histories, although the process of definite separation is gradual and slow.


The struggle for power in 16th century Europe - The Wars of Religion - Book I of III Illustrated

The present volume, as its title imports, relates a complicated series of conflicts of which the origin or the pretext has for the most part to be sought in the great religious schism of Christianity. Although in graver peril than ever before from the persistent advance of the Ottoman Power, Europe no longer finds a real unifying force in either Papacy or Empire.

Since, the story of no european country or group of countries in this troubled period admits of being told as detached from the contemporary history of its neighbors, the same series of events must necessarily appear more than once in these pages as forming an organic part of the history of several countries, or adversaries, allies, therefore, but treated in each case from a distinct point of view.

Contents of book i include:chronological summarythe wars of religion in francefrench humanism and montaignethe catholic reaction, and the valois and bÁthory elections, in polandthe height of the ottoman powerthe empire under ferdinand i and maximilian iithe revolt of the netherlandswILLIAM THE SILENT.

It allies itself with the settled resolution of Philip of Spain to control the destinies of Western Europe; and thus there is not a phase of the religious and political struggle here described which remains unconnected with the rest. The spiritual ardor of the catholic Reaction, which might have served to strengthen the resistance to the general enemy of Christendom, is expended largely on internecine conflicts.

The religious wars of france, with an account of which this volume opens, furnish the most complete instance of the constant intersection of native and foreign influences; but it is illustrated by almost every portion of the narrative. But the cause of the restoration of catholic unity in the west was, in the minds of both the supporters and the opponents of that cause, inextricably interwoven with the purposes of dynastic ambition, and powerfully affected by influences traceable to the rapid advance of the monarchical principle and to the gradual growth of the conception of the modern national State.


The Story of the Goths Illustrated

From their beginnings in the east to the fall of the Visigtohic kingdom in Spain in the early 8th century. Contents include:who were the gothsfrom the baltic to the danubefire and sword in asiathe goths and constantinethe gothic alexanderthe judges of the visigothsthe apostle of the gothsfrithigern and valensthe goths and theodosiusAlaric the BalthingKing Atawulf and His QueenThe Kingdom of ToulouseEnd of the Western EmpireThe Boyhood of TheodericThe Rival NamesakesHow the Ostrogoths Won ItalyThe Wisdom of TheodericTheoderic and His NeighboursTheoderic's Evil DaysA Queen's TroublesAn Unkingly KingWitigis the UnreadyThe Year-Long SiegeWitigis in HidingThe Goths Lose RavennaNew Gothic VictoriesFailure of BelisariusRuin of the OstrogothsThe Visigoths AgainLeovigild and His SonsThe Goths Become CatholicA Priest Ridden KingdomThe Story of WambaThirty Years of DecayThe Fall of the VisigothsConclusionPersonal Names.

The story of the germanic tribes that crossed the Danube into the frontier of the Roman Empire and ultimately caused the collapse of Rome in the West.